Ear-Nose-Throat Medicine, Head and Neck Surgery

Various surgical methods allow the treatment of hearing disorders, snoring, nasal polyps, chronic sinusitis as well as recurrent ENT infections.

Dr. Tammer Fahim

The field of ear-nose-throat medicine, head and neck surgery (in short ENT, or Oto-Rhino-Laryngology) includes the prevention, detection, conservative and surgical treatment of diseases, injuries, malformations, changes in shape as well as tumours of the ear, the nose, the paranasal sinuses, the oral cavity, salivary glands, pharynx and larynx and functional disorders of the sensory organs of these regions and disorders of voice, speech, language and hearing as well as aftercare and rehabilitation.

Microsurgical procedures are becoming increasingly important in the surgical field, especially in the areas of the middle and inner ear surgery, the nasal and paranasal sinuses surgery using endoscopy and laryngeal surgery. These operations are not only performed for the purpose of anatomical restoration but also in the sense of functional preservation, functional improvement and post-traumatic function restoration. Plastic surgery in the area of the face, auricular malpositions and deformities of the outer nose (especially the bony nasal skeleton) are now among the established treatment methods in ENT as are large areas of tumour surgery of the neck and the oral cavity.

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Otology is concerned with clinical diagnostics and the surgical treatment of diseases of the ear, which are usually accompanied by a loss of hearing. Modern microsurgery of the ear achieves an improvement in hearing with occlusion of eardrum defects or a reconstruction of the auditory ossicular chain in many cases. Different surgical techniques, partly using the latest surgical lasers, are applied. In completely deafened patients, hearing can be restored with a cochlear implant. Implantable hearing aids are a promising new development for the treatment of less severe hearing loss.

Evaluation of dizziness


The function of the organs of balance is determined during the evaluation of dizziness. It is necessary to distinguish between peripheral-vestibular and central dizziness. Central dizziness is a domain of neurology (e.g. dizziness as symptom of a cerebellar infarction). The peripheral-vestibular dizziness originates from the organs of balance in the inner ear and is a domain of ENT medicine. In case of the benign positional vertigo (BPLS), repetitive liberation manoeuvres can ensure a relief from dizziness and this without the use of medicine.



Rhinology deals with diseases of the nose and the paranasal sinuses. Endoscopic clarifications allow an accurate diagnosis.

SThus, a nasal breathing obstruction can be caused, e.g. from a curvature of the nasal septum, from distinct nasal polyps or other changes.

Highly specialised, computer-assisted techniques allow minimally invasive surgery for many diseases of the nose and sinuses, eliminating the necessity of large incisions in the areas of the face or the scalp.



An important branch is the evaluation and treatment of malignant tumours in the areas of the head and throat. These tumours can be located in the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, cervical lymph nodes, the salivary glands, facial skin or in the area of the nose and the paranasal sinuses. Some of these tumours cause symptoms, e.g. long-lasting hoarseness, swallowing disorders or visible neck mass, which the patient wants to clarify. Unfortunately, other tumours can grow “quietly”, i.e. largely without symptoms, so that they can only be detected at an advanced stage.

Through regular, thorough ENT-examinations using endoscopic techniques, malignant tumours can be detected and treated at an early stage.



Laryngology is mainly concerned with changes in the larynx, which often result in hoarseness. Microendoscopic laryngoscopy and radiological examinations lead to a diagnosis. Often the voice can be improved or even normalised thanks to endoscopic microsurgical treatments.

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